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History

The past

Using reliable historical sources, local and foreign historians have recently established that the Kyrgyz people have been a state for 22 centuries. The most ancient historical records of Kyrgyz statehood are documents from the famous Chinese chronicler, Sym Tsyan.

The first authentic traces of man in the Chui Valley date from the Paleolithic era (800,000- 100,000 years BC). Ancient tools were found in the Central Tien-Shan, at Issyk-Kul and in the Fergana Valley.

The earliest notable residents of what is now Kyrgyzstan were warrior tribes of Saka (also known as Scythians), from about the 6th century BC to the
5t11 century AD. Rich bronze and gold relics have been recovered from Scythian burial mounds at Lake Issyk-Kul and in southern Kazakhstan.

The region was under the control of various Turkic alliances from the 6th to 10th centuries, with a sizeable population living on the shores of Lake Issyk-Kul.

The ancestors of today’s Kyrgyz people are believed to have lived in Siberia’s upper Yenisey basin until at least the 10th century, when they began migrating south into the Tien-Shan to avoid Mongol incursions. This migration became more urgent with the rise of Jenghiz Khan in the 13th century. The lands now known as Kyrgyzstan were part of the inheritance of Jenghiz’s second son, Chagatai. As the Russians moved closer in the 19th century, various Kyrgyz tribal leaders made their own peace with Russia or the Kokand Khanate. Russian forces slowly rolled over the towns of the Kokand Khanate, their advance culminating in the defeat of Tashkent in 1865. The Kyrgyz were gradually eased into the Tsar’s provinces of Fergana and Semirechye.

The new masters then began to hand land over to Russian settlers, without resistance from the Kyrgyz until a revolt in 1916 that was heavily put down by the Russian army. Kyrgyz lands became part of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) within the Russian Federation in 1918. They later became a separate Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast in 1924, and a full SSR in 1936. Many nomads were settled during land reforms in the 1920s, and many more were forcibly settled during a cruel collectivization campaign in the 1930s.

In 1995 the Kyrgyz nation celebrated a monumental event - 1,000 years of the greatest Kyrgyz literary work - the heroic epic “Manas.”


The present

InAugust 1991, the Kyrgyz Supreme Soviet voted to declare Kyrgyzstan’s independence. Six weeks later, Askar Akayev was empowered to be President, running unopposed. By the end of the year, Kyrgyzstan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States. In May 1993 a brand-new constitution dispensed with most structural vestiges of the Soviet era, in accordance with which the Kyrgyz Republic, a sovereign, unitary democratic republic, set up a legal, secular government. The following year, Kyrgyzstan signed first non-aggression agreements with Russia, China, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan.

14th August 2005 was the inauguration ceremony for Kurmanbek Bakiev, who had been elected President in unscheduled national presidential elections held on 10th July 2005.

The underlying foreign policy, aims and tasks on which the activities of the Kyrgyz Republic are based, have remained unchanged, as stated in the first days after the regime change in the republic.

Kyrgyzstan
has friendly relations with many countries. Built upon long-standing cultural cooperation, these links will continue to grow stronger in the future. Other states are ready to share Kyrgyzstan’s experience in developing democracy and implementing the reforms needed to create a prosperous market economy.

Kyrgyzstan is an active participant in the struggle against international terrorism on the global, regional and national levels. The country has given the international antiterrorist coalition access to its territory for military activities. Antiterrorist centers have been established in the framework of both the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Commonwealth of Independent States. In 2007 Kyrgyzstan will chair the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and talks with SCO countries will be held in Bishkek. Collective Rapid Deployment Forces with their headquarters in Bishkek have been formed within the framework of the Collective Security Treaty.

Investment in the future of Kyrgyzstan: investments are supporting this country’s journey towards democracy, economic development and technical progress.



The future

The future of the Kyrgyz Republic is a future of reforms, hard work and continuous opening up to the world.Today, Kyrgyzstan is a totally different country that will never return to authoritarianism, state corruption and injustice. By leaning on freedom and democracy, Kyrgyzstan has become a country capable of public dialogue and dynamic development.

The new leadership of the Kyrgyz Republic intends to make every effort to achieve an economic breakthrough and impart the people with confidence in the future.

Economic reforms in the Kyrgyz Republic are clear guidelines for the elimination of barriers to investment and for improvements to the Kyrgyz Republic’s investment promotion policy.

Kyrgyzstan
is the first Central Asian country to join the World Trade Organization (WTO), and is a member of or a signatory to many international organizations and agreements.

Several international organizations are helping Kyrgyzstan to eradicate poverty, to neutralize flash points of instability, encourage the development of democracy, and to positively influence world development as a whole.